The world of scientific research

Now off to Switzerland in search of new insights about aquatic invasive species, Eric Dexter is a late-blooming research success story.

Eric Dexter was planning to become an acupuncturist when he inadvertently discovered a love for research. A high school dropout, he completed his diploma through an adult program in his home state of Florida, worked at several short-term jobs, moved to Portland on a whim, and at age 25, enrolled at Portland Community College to take remedial classes and prerequisites needed for the acupuncture program, including basic biology. He also took courses (which he describes as invaluable) in college survival skills and applying for scholarships.

Eric Dexter as a PhD student at WSU Vancouver

At the end of the year, Dexter was awarded a research internship to study interactions between native and invasive honeybees in Ghana. The world opened up for him. “That research internship changed my focus,” he said. “ I forgot about acupuncture and started pursuing core science classes.” 

He transferred to Portland State University for his bachelor’s degree, receiving international research internships every summer. He spent a year in New Zealand on an exchange program. “No one from my family had ever left the country before, and I got shipped off to West Africa to do research and realized there’s a big world of science out there, and if I pursue a scientific career I can do something international,” he said.

Dexter enrolled at WSU Vancouver for his master’s degree, earned a Fulbright to study in Switzerland in 2014/15, then returned to Vancouver to finish his Ph.D. in environmental and natural resource science with Professor Stephen Bollens. Now a new Ph.D., Dexter leaves in May for a European Commission–funded Marie Curie postdoc fellowship at the University of Basel in Switzerland. He will work with Dieter Ebert, a professor at the University of Basel, on the co-evolution between hosts and parasites or the pathogens that affect them.

Dexter’s Fulbright year at the University of Lausanne gave him an initial understanding of genetics research, something he plans to continue. To study the genetics of aquatic invasive species, he brought his research specimens along and returned to Vancouver with the data to complete the analysis, which was published as an article, “A genetic reconstruction of the invasion of the calanoid copepod Psuedodiaptomus inopinusacross the North American Pacific Coast.” It appeared in the journal Biological Invasions in 2018 and became a chapter in his dissertation. One of his collaborators in Switzerland, Séverine Vuilleumier, joined his dissertation committee. 

Eric busy collecting data

“The dissertation work focuses on the way invasive zooplankton species impact water bodies around the Pacific Northwest, and examines some of the mechanisms that might be behind their establishment and spread across the region,” Dexter said. “The next work is a little shift in direction, using similar species but this time in a laboratory setting and with wild populations as well. We are going to test some fundamental predictions of co-evolutionary theory between hosts and the organisms that affect them. I think we will find a really clear signal in the genomes of the species we’re studying.” 

With the use of genetic methodology, the research is groundbreaking. “We’re looking for something in evolutionary biology and genetics which has never been seen before,” he said.

The long-term implications are significant. “Co-evolution is the process that drives antibiotic resistance in bacteria and a lot of other agricultural and medical real world problems,” he said. “This is going to improve our understanding of the basic processes.

Collecting samples in Portland. Local research with global impact.

Research on the razor’s edge

Dexter’s international interests are about much more than travel. In an article for Science magazine in June 2017, he described the frustrations of scientific funding in the United States. For example, about four years ago, he was told he’d received a three-year grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, but havoc in the agency left no one in charge and the funding uncertain for Dexter and the others in his program. 

After an 11-month delay, he and his fellow awardees finally learned they would receive the full three years of funding, but the program would no longer accept applications. In Science, he wrote that while he was “extraordinarily grateful” for the EPA’s support, he was also concerned about the agency’s future.

“Beyond that, I am worried about my nation’s scientific institutions as a whole,” Dexter wrote. “Scientists in the United States face a shortage of tenure-track faculty jobs and fierce competition for a shrinking pool of grants. These dimming prospects reflect decades of underinvestment in the sciences. … We are all doing research on a razor’s edge.”

Dexter’s sharp focus and perseverance have helped him get ahead in a competitive environment, and WSU Vancouver has been good to him too. “I’ve had great faculty and easy access to faculty whenever I have questions,” he said. “The campus is beautiful, there are incredible support staff in my department, and my adviser has been a great resource.” The university has given him grants and awards for professional development, travel and scholarships.Dexter’s wife, Claire, and 8-year-old son, Redmond, will join him in Switzerland in August, when she finishes her x-ray tech program.

Posted in Invasive species, Water | 1 Comment

The puzzle of pediatric pain

What is the relationship between physical pain and psychological pain in children and adolescents?

Early in her academic career, Jessica Fales realized that hardly anyone had studied what she most wanted to learn about—the relationship between chronic pain and social development in children and adolescents. There was little research and a wide-open field.

“The main thread that ties my research together is trying to understand why rates of chronic pain increase in adolescence, why girls are disproportionately affected, and how to prevent them from turning into adults with chronic pain. And for those with chronic pain, how can we improve their outcomes?” Fales said. She believes that social relationships may play a key role in pain onset, pain chronification and pain prevention. 

Fales became interested in links between social functioning and pediatric pain while working on her graduate degree at the University of Maine. Determined to do her clinical internship year at an academic medical center with a pediatric pain specialty, she found Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. “I got to be in on the ground floor of a treatment they were developing for parents of children with chronic pain,” she said, “and after that I was hooked.” Fales completed a two-year fellowship in pediatric pain management at Seattle Children’s Research Institute in 2014.

Chronic pain is common in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, Fales said. Things like headaches, stomach aches and limb pain may be caused by an injury or disease, or there may be no known cause. And while some children in pain function just fine in their social worlds, others struggle or withdraw from activities. That can impair their social development.

A subject in the Fales lab with her arm in water to induce pain

Since joining WSU Vancouver in 2014 as an assistant professor of psychology, Fales has not slowed down. In 2016 she received a New Faculty Seed Grant from WSU for research in her Adolescent Health & Wellness Lab on the Vancouver campus. She also works with two other WSU Vancouver psychology professors, Benjamin Ladd and Renee Magnan, as part of a broader project supported by Grand Challenges Seed Grant and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program funding from WSU Pullman. In addition, she continues to collaborate with her former mentors and colleagues at OHSU, SCRI and worldwide.

A promising start

Fales has learned a few things about what pain can do to kids. For example, in a commentary written with Paula Forgeron of the University of Ottawa, Fales concluded that strong friendships may benefit youth with chronic pain. “Children and youth with chronic pain have fewer friends, are rated as less likeable by peers, and may be subjected to higher rates of peer victimization,” she wrote. 

This indicates a need for more research into how friendship can impact pain and disability, how to help children with chronic pain develop more social skills and ultimately how to harness the power of peers in recovery efforts. “Understanding social functioning, particularly peer friendships, in youth with chronic pain is the next critical wave of research in helping youth manage the complexity of chronic pain and develop into healthy young adults,” she wrote.

A subject in the Fales lab viewing the “pain scale.”

Another avenue for research is the role of parents in pediatric chronic pain. For example, Fales has learned that teaching problem-solving skills to parents—so they experience less stress in their own lives—can also help their children suffer less pain.

In her work at WSU Vancouver, Fales explores whether bullying or social exclusion is linked to physical pain. She and her collaborators have discovered that adolescents with chronic pain experience similar rates of victimization compared to their peers without pain—but are sometimes more bothered by these experiences when they do occur. 

Last semester, Fales and her team of undergraduate research assistants (Alivia Stone, Elizabeth Hardin, Abigail Bambilla and Rachel Murray) wrapped up an experiment looking at whether being socially excluded affected healthy adolescents’ perception of physical pain. Stone will present her findings at the Society for Pediatric Psychology’s annual conference this spring, and Hardin will present at the American Psychology Association’s annual conference in August.

“The team is now trying to figure out where to go from here,” Fales said. “We are hoping to build on these results in clinical populations.”

Similarly, the Grand Challenges Seed Grant opened the door to further research on health behaviors and marijuana use broadly. Fales’s part of that grant involved use of marijuana for chronic pain in young people. “Some young adults are primarily using cannabis for its presumptive pain-relieving properties,” she wrote. “Nevertheless, even in the context of longstanding heavy use, their pain persists.” Is it possible that the relief from cannabis inhibits the development of other pain management techniques and ultimately prolongs the pain over time?

These are questions Fales wants to answer. “My big interest is trying to figure out the social risk and protective factors that may contribute to the development of chronic pain,” she said. “Once you identify those, they can be harnessed to develop preventative interventions. Is there something we can do to encourage and promote peer relationships and build resilience factors for youth with chronic pain? How can we make our treatments more effective?” She keeps running into the same problem: What she wants to find out has never been done. She said, “I wish there were lots more psychologists working on this subject.” 

Posted in pain, Substance abuse | 1 Comment

The space between “us” and “them”

Marcelo Diversi’s second book on “betweener” culture urges tackling social justice issues from a personal perspective.

On the 9-hour flight between his native Brazil and his current home in the Pacific Northwest, Marcelo Diversi acquires a new identity. “I’m going from being a white person [in Brazil] to being a brown person [in the United States], from a native to a migrant,” he said. “You see what doors open and what don’t.”

That position provides a unique vantage point for the social justice philosophy he practices and describes in his new book, “Betweener Autoethnographies: A Path Towards Social Justice,” co-written with fellow native Brazilian Claudio Moreira. Diversi is associate professor of human development at WSU Vancouver, and Moreira is associate professor of performance studies at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. 

“Betweener Autoethnographies” (2018) expands upon the ideas the two authors set forth in their previous book, “Betweener Talk” (2009). Their friendship and ability to write collaboratively further illustrate the concept of “betweeners.” Although Moreira grew up poor while Diversi grew up privileged, they have found common ground in the space “between” their differences. Overcoming the “us vs. them” mentality, or, as the book puts it, “expanding the circle of us,” is the vision.

“I’m male and privileged socially, but I have my own ways in which I experience being on the wrong side of the tracks,” Diversi said. “Even the most privileged person experiences that once in a while, and in that moment we have the opportunity to identify with others. Either you are part of us—family, country, tribe—or you’re them, the other. We explore the spaces in between us and them, and we call for people to find those places where they themselves have been in that other situation.”

Autoethnography—a form of ethnography that combines personal experience with observation—is an emerging research practice. “Betweener Autoethnographies” both endorses the practice and exemplifies it. The authors tackle social justice issues from their own subjective perspectives. Their work combines academic training and writing with techniques borrowed from literature to analyze political issues. “Creating a direct link between the personal and the political is the principle of autoethnography,” Diversi said. 

Even most knowledgeable and well-trained observer, with the best statistical analysis, needs firsthand experience to understand certain problems, he said. You simply can’t separate the personal from the political: “It’s not an either/or choice.”

Their writing about overcoming the dehumanizing “us vs. them” mentality so prevalent in the world today could not have come at a better time. Indeed, they start by examining the politics of the day in both Brazil and the United States. “How can anyone protest against liberation and humanization of those historically oppressed? By making Them, the historically oppressed, seem innately different from Us, less than Us, ungrateful ..a menace,” Diversi and Moreira write. 

The topics they ponder are big, divisive political issues: immigration, refugees, decolonization, and inclusion versus exclusion. “There has never been a greater need for a militant utopianism,” writes Norman K. Denzin in the introduction. Denzin is an emeritus professor of sociology at the University of Illinois, where both authors earned Ph.D.s.Diversi acknowledges that their vision may be utopian—that is, if everyone bought into the idea of betweeners, the world would be a far better place—but he remains clear-eyed about the future. “If we have a catastrophic collapse, we will revert to more tribal state,” he said. Citing theologian Theodore Parker, he continued: “But we also have a long history, and the arc of history bends toward justice. I do see that happening.”

Posted in Equity and diversity | Leave a comment

Preparing teachers for bilingual students

Gisela Ernst-Slavit is spearheading a grant to improve the way schools and teachers can support students who are learning English along with their lessons. Communities and families will benefit too.

For many years, Gisela Ernst-Slavit has been troubled by the mismatch between the K-12 student population and elementary-school teachers. While the U.S. student body is growing more ethnically and linguistically diverse, there is a shortage of teachers who mirror the backgrounds of their students and who are prepared to teach students who are learning English as a second or third language. Those students are trying to learn their lessons in a language they do not understand well. And their parents may not always be able to help them.

PI Gisela E-S teaching at WSUV

Ernst-Slavit at WSU Vancouver

The number of students who are learning the English language as they go to school is growing in Washington state as well as the country. “Seventy-five percent of K-5 English language learners are born in the United States,” said Ernst-Slavit, professor of education at WSU Vancouver. “School districts are trying to implement dual-language programs for students. But it’s hard to find qualified bilingual teachers. In 2012, the state of Washington certified only 14 bilingual education teachers for the whole state.”

Ernst-Slavit hopes to develop a remedy through a pilot program funded by a $2.2 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education. It is called ELL-IMPACT, for Equity for Language Learners—Improving Practices and Acquisition of Culturally Responsive Teaching. If successful, the program will become a nationwide model for improving teacher preparation for our changing demographics.

“The new generation of students—both K-12 and college, do not fit neatly organized boxes,” Ernst-Slavit said. “Their backgrounds and experiences and needs and talents are different, because they are a diverse group.”

Led by Ernst-Slavit and four co-principal investigators, all from WSU, ELL-IMPACT is working on two campuses—Vancouver and Tri-Cities—to train 52 new bilingual teachers over five years. Currently, both Vancouver and Tri-Cities have cohorts of 11 students who are expected to graduate in 2019. Both campuses are partnering with local school districts—Vancouver with the Evergreen district, and Tri-Cities with six Eastern Washington districts.

What is most remarkable is who these students are. They are paraprofessionals—instructional assistants—who are already working in a school or district supporting English language learners. They know how to help students who are learning English, but they are not accredited (or paid) as teachers.

Esperanza Huerta guides a group of local educators during an activity

Esperanza Huerta guides a group of local educators during an activity

“Many paraprofessionals play an incredible role as brokers between families, community and school,” Ernst-Slavit said. “Research indicates that most paraprofessionals live in the communities in which they teach, whereas most teachers do not. And most teachers don’t understand the community dynamics, but paraprofessionals do. They speak the language of the children and have experienced some of the challenges that English language learners face.”

The students were selected by their school districts. They came to the United States from Cuba, Panama, Mexico, Honduras and Hungary. While some have degrees from other countries or in other disciplines, most would probably not have earned a teaching degree without this program.

The grant covers most of their tuition. The district accommodates their schedules so they can attend conferences and make presentations. “While they work full-time at their districts, they take classes in the evening,” Ernst-Slavit said. Because WSU Vancouver is partnering with just one district, the education professors are helping out the students—some of whom work multiple jobs—by bringing classes to them, holding them in Evergreen district conference rooms rather than on the Vancouver campus.

The project is directly linked with one of WSU’s Grand Challenges: Opportunity and equity. It seeks to promote equity and to improve educational opportunities for two sets of students: college students preparing to become teachers, and English language K-8 students. The grant has three focus areas:

  1. Improve parental, family and community engagement
  2. Examine the effectiveness of small-group instructional strategies currently used by participating district
  3. Examine the effectiveness and viability of alternative route teacher preparation programs

“The key thing is collaboration—the university, the school district and the community working together,” Ernst-Slavit said. She is thrilled at the support ELL-IMPACT is getting, and at the progress the first cohort is making. “There is dedication, talent, sensitivity—and a big heart,” she said.

Ernst-Slavit’s co-PIs are Judy Morrison, Sarah Newcomer and Yuliya Ardasheva at WSU Tri Cities, and Kira Carbonneau at WSU Pullman. Two Ph.D. students are also involved: Lindsay Lightner on the Tri-Cities campus and Steve Morrison at Vancouver.

Melodie Alfaro-Ulsh sharing her parent & community involvement program wth local teachers at the WSU TC campus in October. Co-PI Sarah Newcomer and PhD student Steve Morrison standing

Melodie Alfaro-Ulsh sharing her parent and community involvement program with local teachers in Tri-Cities

Posted in education, Equity and diversity, Writing | Leave a comment

Water and life on earth

From cities to rural and wild areas, Kevan Moffett wants to better understand the role of water on the planet.

Kevan Moffett’s expertise—ecohydrology—encompasses her global interests in water as a critical sustaining resource for humans and ecosystems. Her research ranges from the effects of heat and water balances on urban life, to forest rejuvenation after wildfires, to the ability of rivers to cleanse themselves of some pollutants before their waters reach the sea. An assistant professor of environmental hydrology at WSU Vancouver, Moffett has the uncommon distinction of concurrently leading three separate National Science Foundation grants, to study these three phenomena.

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Just this spring she received NSF’s prestigious Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER) award. These competitive awards provide five years of support for pre-tenure teacher-scholars. Moffett will receive about $690,000 to study how the urban water cycle interacts with the heat generated by urban areas. The grant period began Aug. 1.

“One of my great interests is how water plays a key role on our planet, including the basic landscape changes it can make, how it can help support ecosystems, and of course how water is important to people,” Moffett said. These interests led her to think about how ecohydrology research today often overlooks the majority of people on the planet—those who live in cities.

Currently, most environmental science research takes place in rural areas that are still considered “natural.” In cities, by contrast, humans have reconfigured the landscape into alternating patterns of pavement and vegetation, with undeniable implications for the movement of water—into storm drains and waterways, but also into the soils and atmosphere. Through the CAREER grant support, Moffett will explore how lessons from natural science conducted in rural natural areas might apply to urban environments, and whether better understanding urban heat and water balances could have applications for making cities more livable despite accelerating global change.

fieldresearch2As part of the CAREER award, Moffett will also design outdoor laboratory science modules to help students (preschoolers and WSU undergraduates) appreciate that they can learn about the environment wherever they are, even in an urban setting. She is particularly interested in making environmental science studies accessible to more students, including those with different mobility needs. She is guided by the vision that everyone can learn to feel a sense of place, understanding, and belonging in their home environment and perhaps in environmental science studies.

 

Moffett’s CAREER work on ecohydrology in the urban environment follows another current project funded by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Northwest Climate Science Center, seeking to quantify the influence of city street trees on the temperature of urban stormwater runoff. She said, “It is well known that trees provide shade and that trees’ leaves catch some rainwater and prevent it from reaching the ground. We were really surprised to find that research had not yet put two and two together to see the impacts of tree shading on stormwater runoff temperatures.”

The research has been analyzing heat and water in a set of 12 residential streets in Portland and will finish in 2018. It has sparked a broad and deep collaboration between Moffett, WSU’s Director of Metropolitan Extension Brad Gaoloch, and over 100 other extension staff, researchers and municipal managers across Washington and Oregon.

Earlier NSF funding

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Moffett’s first NSF grant was awarded for the study of the parts of rivers that are near the river mouth and influenced by tides but still freshwater. In these zones, rivers might slow and so enable more nutrients to be naturally removed by the river ecosystem before the nutrients harm the coast. This project will finish in 2018. Moffett and her student Allan Jones have established a definition for these “riverine tidal freshwater zones,” the competing influences of tides and river flow on its dynamics, and its changes in character along the length of the river. Moffett’s collaborators at the University of Texas at Austin are quantifying these zones’ effects on nitrogen pollution and carbon in river waters that flow into sensitive coastal bays.

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Another of Moffett’s NSF grants, shared with Andrés Holz of Portland State University, seeks to better understand the effects of repeated wildfires on Cascades forest ecology and hydrology. This phenomenon of “short-interval reburns” has become more common over the last 30 years but is only just beginning to be studied. Over the next few years, Moffett, Holz and their student research teams will examine whether an altered hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture may change how plants regrow after a fire and also make them more vulnerable under some conditions to repeated fires in the future. Moffett will also help identify whether and over what time scales reburns might mitigate or worsen the downstream flood risks that often follow fires.

All of Moffett’s studies have an educational component. For example, her research on fires will include coordination with forest and water managers designed to help improve management practices, and may also include a museum educational display. Her research on coastal rivers has included colleagues’ collaboration with a National Estuarine Research Reserve to design and implement public educational kayak outings on the study rivers.

The scope of ecohydrology

Moffett joined WSU Vancouver in January 2015 after earning her Ph.D. at Stanford University, where she studied coastal wetlands, and serving as an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin. As head of the Ecohydrology Group at WSU Vancouver, she and her students are exploring and even redefining the scope of ecohydrology, which she defines as “the interconnection of water with ecosystems and organisms.”

Although rivers, wetlands, forests and cities may seem very different environments, Moffett said, “To me, these are all environments where the spatial organization of water, vegetation, and other organisms are closely entwined and need to work together to sustain the ecosystem, or even people. Yet, we still have a lot to learn about how water and organisms work together in the environment. I’m pleased to have been granted the ability to work on this topic from a number of different angles by NSF and other funders.”

 

 

 

 

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A GREENER WORLD THROUGH COMPUTER SCIENCE

Xinghui Zhao is working on small- and large-scale projects to help individuals and industries save energy.

In the broadest sense, Xinghui Zhao is using her expertise in data analytics and computer systems research to improve the environment. “Because I’m a computer scientist, I’m using computing technology to make a greener world for people,” said Zhao, an assistant professor in the School of Engineering and Computer Science.

Xinghui_IMG_8170_encsSite

At the practical level, she works on both the micro and macro scales in energy-related research. On the micro scale, she is working toward energy-efficient computing by finding ways to monitor and control the energy consumption of various computer operations and applications. These include developing frequency scaling techniques for CPUs, dynamically balancing the workload among heterogeneous processors, and profiling and optimizing energy consumption of applications.

These projects started with an energy-efficient mobile app supported through the Google Summer of Code program, and later expanded in multiple directions. The work applies not only to mobile phones but to many other hardware devices, including multicore CPUs and GPUs. “For these projects, we delivered multiple open source software packages available on GitHub,” she said. “These are research prototypes, but they have already been downloaded and used.”

On the macro scale, she is helping to develop ways to make the world safer for everyone who depends on the power grid for energy. Specifically, Zhao and her collaborators are mining power grid data to identify anomalies, such as unplanned events, faults or cyberattacks, before they have a chance to disrupt the system.

Xinghui_ResearchNow

Lately she has been collaborating with faculty and students at Washington State University, Oregon State University and Portland State University on multiple interdisciplinary research projects, which she calls “Big Data Analytics for Smart Grid.” She explains that power companies monitor their large grids by deploying smaller devices called PMUs (phasor measurement units), which measure electrical waves on the grid to detect anomalies. Sponsored by the Department of Energy and Bonneville Power Administration, one of the projects seeks to develop machine learning approaches to mine PMU data for event detection. “Line events might lead to a blackout if not being identified in a timely manner,” Zhao said. “So we gather the historical data from BPA’s power grid, develop and evaluate various machine learning algorithms to mine the data for identifying anomalies, and give recommendations to the operators on what could be the possible cause for these anomalies.”

Besides event detection, data integrity and cyber security of a power grid are also major challenges. In another project, similar machine learning approaches can be used to detect data spoofs. The collaborators have built an inter-university PMU network among the three universities and started to collect data to simulate what would happen if a hacker spoofed one or more PMUs. If a PMU is hacked, it will quickly get out of synch with all the others. “So we try to mine a large amount of data, detect the problematic PMU, and learn that a cyberattack could be happening,” she said.

The collaborators have been working on these projects for more than three years. Ultimately, there will be a framework for BPA to use to analyze its data, with the goal of making its power grid more reliable and robust.

Zhao is a prolific writer, committed to sharing ideas with other experts at conferences and publications. One such project recently was done a year ago with a graduate student for an international conference. It focused on creating energy-efficient microprocessors. Processors have become much faster since the 1970s, but since about 2005, the rate of increase is more or less flat, she said. “There’s this thing called the power wall,” Zhao said. “We can make a faster processor, but it generates heat when it’s running too fast, and the heat takes energy.” She is seeking to develop ways to help people understand that the computer core does not need to run as fast as possible, only as fast as needed, and that the workload can be distributed among a user’s programs to promote energy savings, without extra effort from the programmers.

Making people aware of their energy usage is a huge step toward a greener world. “Energy is an important resource, and we don’t have that much,” Zhao said, “Things can be done at different scales to help this situation, but increasing public awareness of this issue is a key.”

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Teaching business ethics to accounting students.

Carson College faculty members win two awards for publications on using the Giving Voice to Values approach to teach ethics to accounting students.

A framework for addressing small and large workplace conflicts has been sweeping the business world. Called Giving Voice to Values, it was created by Mary Gentile, a professor at Darden School of Business at the University of Virginia.

But does it truly work, and if so, what is the evidence? That was the question on the minds of Jane Cote and Claire Kamm Latham, professors in WSU Vancouver’s Carson College of Business.

“We were impressed with the framework she was using to teach students and professionals how to address ethical challenges in the workplace,” said Cote, academic director for the Carson College. “It’s an active learning approach, and it resonates when we go to workshops and get together with academics. But to move it forward, Claire and I felt we should explore the efficacy of the training. Do people feel good about it and go home and never use it, or does it have a more lasting impact?”

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Jane Cote

What is GVV?

GVV provides tools to move from recognizing ethical conflicts to speaking up when confronted with conflicts. Through practice, it helps to instill awareness and self-confidence.

“One reason I feel it works so well is it builds on your strengths,” Latham said. “You know what works for you, but we don’t have that finely tuned. Through these exercises, you develop game plans and scripts so that in this situation you are more comfortable—so that when something happens and a boundary is crossed, your mind won’t go blank.”

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Clair Kamm Latham

Cote and Latham introduced GVV training into the accounting program at WSU Vancouver six years ago. It turned out to be the ideal time to begin studying how well it works. Now, the use of GVV in WSU Vancouver accounting classes has resulted in two award-winning publications. Cote and Latham received the 2017 Outstanding Accounting Education Research Award for a paper on developing ethical confidence through the accounting curriculum; and the 2017 Outstanding Author Contribution for a second paper on using a peer-to-peer approach to teach the GVV framework.

“What’s unique about Jane’s and my research is that we were the first to show in certain settings that GVV works, so that’s exciting,” said Latham, associate professor of accounting.

“We not only have tested its efficacy but also explored in the process embedding it throughout the accounting curriculum,” Cote said.

Peer training—intriguing results

The peer-to-peer approach in the classroom has proved particularly interesting. Students have their first exposure to the GVV approach in the introductory accounting class. Upper-division accounting honor society members also complete GVV exercises and casework in upper-division classes. Then, with faculty guidance, those students create and deliver workshops for the introductory class—essentially serving as peer coaches so the introductory students learn about ethics from their peers rather than faculty members.

The study found that peer instruction resonates with students, especially with ethics training, because the peer instructors are sharing their experiences and emphasizing the importance of the curriculum. An unexpected finding was the increase in student engagement with co-curricular activities.

A longer-term, between-subjects study explored the efficacy of embedding GVV across the accounting curriculum. In an accounting capstone course, students study the professional code of ethics and read a case study about a new accountant who told a white lie about passing the CPA exam during her first month on the job. After the case discussion, students had access but not authority to access certain class materials. The learning outcome was to illustrate that the code of professional conduct expects accountants to respect confidentiality of client information. Students were asked if they had crossed this boundary, and faculty were able to observe their behavior.

Before the introduction of GVV into the curriculum, all students looked and most students lied about looking at the confidential information. Afterward, none of the students accessed the confidential information. Debriefing both groups uncovered that students in the early group had rationalized that because everyone would violate confidentiality, they should too.

After the intensive GVV training, students said they understood that most students shared values related to honesty and respect and thus chose to not cross the boundary. This understanding led to the change in the behavior. This finding has implications for workplace training and the power that understanding others can have for building an ethical workplace culture.

Trainings as fundraisers

Cote and Latham also conduct trainings with organizations and, in particular, CPA firms to provide ethics workshops that qualify for continuing education credit for CPAs in Oregon. In appreciation, firms donate funds to the Carson College in Vancouver to support students and programs. To date, these efforts have raised tens of thousands of dollars to fund student scholarships, faculty research and program activities.

On April 27, Cote and Latham are conducting a GVV workshop for women in the Vancouver area, titled “Strengthening Women’s Voices in the Workplace.” It will be a fundraiser for the college’s Business Growth Mentor & Analysis Program (MAP), which provides pro-bono consulting services to small businesses in the region. More than half of the small business owners in Southwest Washington are women, and Cote and Latham hope attendees will learn valuable tools while creating resources for other women in the region. The event will be held at Fort Vancouver.

“This workshop will provide people with the tools they can use to create a strategy to address situations that cross an ethical boundary,” Cote said. “In the workplace, such situations often arise at inopportune moments. Taken off guard, we often feel somewhat mute; where do we start? That’s where our training comes in.”

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